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The Association of College and Research Libraries (ACRL) defines information literacy as "the set of integrated abilities encompassing the reflective discovery of information, the understanding of how information is produced and valued, and the use of information in creating new knowledge and participating ethically in communities of learning." The ACRL's 2016 Framework for Information Literacy for Higher Education offers six threshold concepts that encompass information literacy and can help librarians and educators structure outcomes, activities and curricula: